cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).
Desk step one.
Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl
Thinking was shown since imply±SEM. Pee was compiled having twenty-four time at the six, 12, and you can 18 wk to choose solute levels since discussed about Concise Strategies.
K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).
K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit http://www.datingranking.net/es/citas-birraciales/, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.
Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
Gel amounts of calcium and you will PTH failed to disagree ranging from K-cit–fed and you will KCl-given rats, while you are serum phosphate membership was indeed ;fed rats ( Shape 3 ).
K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
K-cit didn’t change the quantity of stones designed otherwise extent of calcification regarding the kidneys ( Contour cuatro ). All rats molded stones of comparable size and you may occurrence along with similar quantities of calcification for the renal and you may get together program.
Renal brick development and you may calcification was not more in the mice given KCl otherwise K-cit. At the conclusion of the latest 18-week studies, brand new extent of renal rocks and you will calcification is influenced by around three observers since the explained throughout the Concise Tips. The quantity out-of kidney calcification has also been calculated just like the discussed from the To the stage Measures. (A) User radiographs from kidneys regarding rats choosing KCl or K-cit. Calcification scores toward photos revealed are provided as the a research. (B) Quantitation out of brick creation and calcification in most mice choosing KCl otherwise K-cit. Beliefs is actually imply±SEM.
Visible stones was dissected regarding user kidneys regarding one another organizations and you can analyzed to own crystal morphology. The newest diffraction activities for everyone assessed examples were congruent toward diffraction trend away from biologic apatite, a cap brick ( Profile 5 , top). Which have entry to alert electron microscopy (TEM), every kidney brick crystals got a rod- or needle-such as for example profile, just like the morphology from biologic apatite deposits ( Profile 5 , bottom) and in place of the new octahedral amazingly morphology of CaOx.